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Lesson 5 - Federal Aviation Regulations: Part 1 - Ascent Ground School

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Private Pilot | Lesson 5 - Federal Aviation Regulations: Part 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
5.1 FAR PART 1—DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
5.2 FAR PART 21—CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS
5.3 FAR PART 39—AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES
5.4 FAR PART 43—MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION
5.5 FAR PART 61—CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS
5.6 FAR PART 71—DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS

5.1 FAR PART 1—Definitions and Abbreviations

General Definitions:

For the CERTIFICATION OF AIRMEN (these are the categories and classes of aircraft that appear on PILOT CERTIFICATES), the following definitions apply:

Aircraft Categories these are broad classifications of aircraft (for certification of airmen)

  • Airplane
    • Airplane Classes (for certification of airmen)
      • Single-engine land
      • Multiengine land
      • Single-engine sea
      • Multiengine sea
  • Rotorcraft
    • Rotorcraft Classes (for certification of airmen)
      • Helicopter
      • Gyrocopter
  • Glider
  • Lighter-than-air
    • Lighter-than-air Classes (for certification of airmen)
      • Airship
      • Free balloon
      • Hot air balloon
      • Gas balloon

Remember, the above category and class definitions are for certification of airmen purposes. For certification of aircraft there are different definitions.

For the CERTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT, the following definitions apply:

Category, is based on intended use or operating limitations (for certification of aircraft purposes).

1) Transport
2) Normal
3) Utility
4) Limited
5) Restricted
6) Acrobatic
7) Provisional

Air traffic control (ATC) clearance is defined as an authorization to proceed under specific traffic conditions in controlled airspace.

Night is defined as the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the American Air Almanac converted to local time.
However, for the "recency of experience" provisions of FAR 61.57, night is defined as from 1 hr. after sunset to 1 hr. before sunrise.

Caution: On the FAA knowledge test, you could get questions on both definitions, so be sure to read carefully!

Abbreviations and Symbols

The following are abbreviations for v-speeds:

VFE - maximum flap extended speed.
VLE - maximum landing gear extended speed.
VNO - maximum structural cruising speed.
VA - design maneuvering speed.
VS0 - the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration.
VX - speed for best angle of climb.
VY - speed for best rate of climb.

Ascent Quick Quiz
Ascent Quick Quiz - 5.1 FAR PART 1—Definitions and Abbreviations
Question 1: With respect to the certification of airmen, which is a category of aircraft?
Answer

Question 2: With respect to the certification of airmen, which is a class of aircraft?
Answer

Question 3: With respect to the certification of aircraft, which is a category of aircraft?
Answer

Question 4: With respect to the certification of aircraft, which is a class of aircraft?
Answer

Question 5: The definition of nighttime is
Answer

Question 6: An ATC clearance provides
Answer

Question 7: Which V-speed represents maximum flap extended speed?
Answer

Question 8: Which V-speed represents maximum landing gear extended speed?
Answer

Question 9: VNO is defined as the
Answer

Question 10: Which V-speed represents maneuvering speed?
Answer

Question 11: VS0 is defined as the
Answer

Question 12: Which would provide the greatest gain in altitude in the shortest distance during climb after takeoff?
Answer

Question 13: After takeoff, which airspeed would the pilot use to gain the most altitude in a given period of time?
Answer


5.2 FAR PART 21—Certification Procedures for Products and Parts

21.181 Duration of Airworthiness Certificates

Airworthiness certificates remain in force as long as maintenance and alteration of the aircraft are performed per applicable FARs.

Ascent Quick Quiz
Ascent Quick Quiz - 5.2 FAR PART 21—Certification Procedures for Products and Parts
Question 1: How long does the Airworthiness Certificate of an aircraft remain valid?
Answer


5.3 FAR PART 39—Airworthiness Directives

39.1 Applicability

Airworthiness Directives (ADs) are issued under FAR Part 39 by the FAA to require correction of unsafe conditions found in an airplane, an airplane engine, a propeller, or an appliance when such conditions exist and are likely to exis or develop in other products of the same design. Since ADs are issued under FAR Part 39, they are regulatory and must be complied with, unless a specific exemption is granted.

39.3 General

No person may operate a product to which an AD applies except in accordance with the requirements of that AD.
Thus, you may operate an airplane that is not in compliance with an AD, if such operation is allowed by the AD.

Ascent Quick Quiz
Ascent Quick Quiz - 5.3 FAR PART 39—Airworthiness Directives
Question 1: What should an owner or operator know about Airworthiness Directives (AD's)?
Answer

Question 2: May a pilot operate an aircraft that is not in compliance with an Airworthiness Directive (AD)?
Answer


5.4 FAR PART 43—Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alteration

43.3 Persons Authorized to Perform Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alterations

A person who holds a pilot certificate may perform preventive maintenance on any airplane owned or operated by that pilot which is not used in air carrier services.

43.7 Persons Authorized to Approve Aircraft Airframes, Aircraft Engines, Propellers, Appliances, or Component Parts for Return to Service after Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, or Alteration

To approve the airplane for return to service, after preventive maintenance was done by a pilot, the pilot must hold at least a private pilot certificate.

43.9 Maintenance Records

After preventive maintenance has been performed, the signature, certificate number, and kind of certificate held by the person approving the work and a description of the work must be entered in the aircraft maintenance records.

Part 43, Appendix A. Major Alterations and Repairs and Preventive Maintenance

Preventive maintenance means simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.
Examples include: Changing engine oil, replenishing hydraulic fluid, servicing landing gear wheel bearings.

Ascent Quick Quiz
Ascent Quick Quiz - 5.4 FAR PART 43—Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alteration
Question 1: What regulation allows a private pilot to perform preventive maintenance?
Answer

Question 2: Who may perform preventive maintenance on an aircraft and approve it for return to service?
Answer

Question 3: Preventive maintenance has been performed on an aircraft. What paperwork is required?
Answer

Question 4: Which operation would be described as preventive maintenance?
Answer

Question 5: Which operation would be described as preventive maintenance?
Answer


5.5 FAR PART 61—Certification: Pilots, Flight Instructors, and Ground Instructors

61.3 Requirements for Certificates, Ratings, and Authorizations

When acting as a pilot in command or as a required pilot flight crewmember, you must have a valid pilot certificate and a current and appropriate medical certificate in your personal possession or readily accessible in the airplane.
You must present your pilot certificate or medical certificate upon the request of the Administrator of the FAA or his/her representative, or the NTSB, or any federal, state, or local law enforcement officer.

61.23 Medical Certificates: Requirement and Duration

For operations requiring a private, recreational, or student pilot certificate, at least a third-class medical certificate is required.

A third class medical certificate will is valid:

  • 60th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate, if you were under the age of 40 on the date of
    examination for your most recent medical certificate, or
  • 24th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate, if you were 40 or older on the date of
    examination for your most recent medical certificate.

61.31 Type Rating Requirements, Additional Training, and Authorization Requirements

To act as pilot in command of a complex airplane, you must receive and log ground and flight training and receive a logbook endorsement. A complex airplane is defined as an airplane with retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller.

To act as pilot in command of a high-performance airplane, you must receive and log ground and flight training and receive a logbook endorsement. A high-performance airplane is defined as an airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower.

A person may not act as pilot in command of any of the following aircraft unless (s)he holds a type rating for that aircraft:

  • A large aircraft (i.e., over 12,500 lb. gross weight)
  • A turbojet-powered airplane
  • Other aircraft specified by the FAA through aircraft type certification procedures

61.56 Flight Review

A flight review must have been satisfactorily completed within the previous 24 calendar months to act as pilot in command of an aircraft. The expiration of the 24-month period for the flight review falls on the last day of the 24th month after the month of the examination date (i.e., 24 calendar months).

A proficiency check or flight test for a pilot certificate, rating, or other operating privileges will also satisfy this requirement.

Satisfactory completion of the review or flight test must be endorsed in the pilot's logbook by the reviewer.

61.57 Recent Flight Experience: Pilot in Command

To carry passengers, you must have made three landings and three takeoffs within the preceding 90 days.

All three landings must be made in aircraft of the same category, class, and, if a type rating is required, the same type as the one in which passengers are to be carried.

  • Categories: Airplane, Rotorcraft, Glider, and Lighter-than-air.
  • Classes: Single-engine land, Single-engine sea, Multiengine land, and Multiengine sea.

The landings must be to a full stop if the airplane has a tailwheel.

To carry passengers at night, you must, within the last 90 days, have made three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop at night in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type, if required.
Night, in this case, is defined as the period beginning 1 hr. after sunset and ending 1 hr. before sunrise.

61.60 Change of Address

You must notify the FAA Airman Certification Branch in writing of any change in your permanent mailing address.

You may not exercise the privileges of your pilot certificate after 30 days from moving unless you make this notification.

61.69 Glider Towing: Experience and Training Requirements

Any person may tow a glider if that person has

  • At least a private pilot certificate
  • 100 hr. of pilot in command time in the aircraft category, class, and type, if required, that the pilot is using to tow a glide, and
  • Within the preceding 12 months:
    • Made at least three actual or simulated glider tows while accompanied by a qualified pilot, or
    • Made at least three flights as pilot in command of a glider towed by an aircraft

61.113 Private Pilot Privileges and Limitations: Pilot in Command

Private pilots may not pay less than an equal (pro rata) share of the operating expenses of a flight with the passengers. These operating expenses may involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.

Private pilots may operate an aircraft carrying passengers on business only if the flight is incidental to that business or employment and the pilot is not paid as a pilot.
For example, a Realtor who is also a private pilot might fly an aircraft carrying clients to a property to view, but not be paid for the piloting - this type of flight is incidental to the Realtor's professional duties or business (showing properties).

A pilot may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft used in a passenger-carrying airlift sponsored by a charitable organization for which passengers make donations to the organization if

  1. The local FSDO (FAA Flight Standards District Office) is notified at least 7 days before the flight,
  2. The flight is conducted from an adequate public airport,
  3. The pilot has logged at least 200 hr.,
  4. No acrobatic or formation flights are performed,
  5. The aircraft complies with the 100-hr. inspection rule, and
  6. The flight is day-VFR.

Ascent Quick Quiz
Ascent Quick Quiz - 5.5 FAR PART 61—Certification: Pilots, Flight Instructors, and Ground Instructors
Question 1: When must a current pilot certificate be in the pilot's personal possession or readily accessible in the aircraft?
Answer

Question 2: A recreational or private pilot acting as pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a required pilot flight crewmember, must have in his or her personal possession or readily accessible in the aircraft a current
Answer

Question 3: What document(s) must be in your personal possession or readily accessible in the aircraft while operating as pilot in command of an aircraft?
Answer

Question 4: Each person who holds a pilot certificate or a medical certificate shall present it for inspection upon the request of the Administrator, the National Transportation Safety Board, or any
Answer

Question 5: A Third-Class Medical Certificate is issued to a 36-year-old pilot on August 10, this year. To exercise the privileges of a Private Pilot Certificate, the medical certificate will be valid until midnight on
Answer

Question 6: A Third-Class Medical Certificate is issued to a 51-year-old pilot on May 3, this year. To exercise the privileges of a Private Pilot Certificate, the medical certificate will be valid until midnight on
Answer

Question 7: For private pilot operations, a Second-Class Medical Certificate issued to a 42-year-old pilot on July 15, this year, will expire at midnight on
Answer

Question 8: For private pilot operations, a First-Class Medical Certificate issued to a 23-year-old pilot on October 21, this year, will expire at midnight on
Answer

Question 9: A Third-Class Medical Certificate was issued to a 19-year-old pilot on August 10, this year. To exercise the privileges of a recreational or private pilot certificate, the medical certificate will expire at midnight on
Answer

Question 10: Before a person holding a private pilot certificate may act as pilot in command of a high-performance airplane, that person must have
Answer

Question 11: What is the definition of a high-performance airplane?
Answer

Question 12: The pilot in command is required to hold a type rating in which aircraft?
Answer

Question 13: In order to act as pilot in command of a high-performance airplane, a pilot must have
Answer

Question 14: To act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers, a pilot must show by logbook endorsement the satisfactory completion of a flight review or completion of a pilot proficiency check within the preceding
Answer

Question 15: If a recreational or private pilot had a flight review on August 8, this year, when is the next flight review required?
Answer

Question 16: Each recreational or private pilot is required to have
Answer

Question 17: If a recreational or private pilot had a flight review on August 8, this year, when is the next flight review required?
Answer

Question 18: To act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers, the pilot must have made at least three takeoffs and three landings in an aircraft of the same category, class, and if a type rating is required, of the same type, within the preceding
Answer

Question 19: If recency of experience requirements for night flight are not met and official sunset is 1830, the latest time passengers may be carried is
Answer

Question 20: To act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers, the pilot must have made three takeoffs and three landings within the preceding 90 days in an aircraft of the same
Answer

Question 21: The three takeoffs and landings that are required to act as pilot in command at night must be done during the time period from
Answer

Question 22: To meet the recency of experience requirements to act as pilot in command carrying passengers at night, a pilot must have made at least three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop within the preceding 90 days in
Answer

Question 23: The takeoffs and landings required to meet the recency of experience requirements for carrying passengers in a tailwheel airplane
Answer

Question 24: If a certificated pilot changes permanent mailing address and fails to notify the FAA Airmen Certification Branch of the new address, the pilot is entitled to exercise the privileges of the pilot certificate for a period of only
Answer

Question 25: A certificated private pilot may not act as pilot in command of an aircraft towing a glider unless there is entered in the pilot's logbook a minimum of
Answer

Question 26: To act as pilot in command of an aircraft towing a glider, a pilot is required to have made within the preceding 12 months
Answer

Question 27: In regard to privileges and limitations, a private pilot may
Answer

Question 28: According to regulations pertaining to privileges and limitations, a private pilot may
Answer

Question 29: What exception, if any, permits a private pilot to act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers who pay for the flight?
Answer


5.6 FAR PART 71—Designation of Class A, B, C, D, and E Airspace Areas

71.75 Extent of Federal Airways

Federal airways include that Class E airspace:

  • Extending upward from 1,200 ft. AGL to and including 17,999 ft. MSL
  • Within parallel boundary lines 4 NM each side of the airway's centerline

Ascent Quick Quiz
Ascent Quick Quiz - 5.6 FAR PART 71—Designation of Class A, B, C, D, and E Airspace Areas
Question 1: The width of a Federal Airway from either side of the centerline is
Answer

Question 2: Unless otherwise specified, Federal Airways include that Class E airspace extending upward from
Answer


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